A Review of Hydrogen/Halogen Flow Cells
Flow batteries provide an energy-storage solution for various grid-related stability and service issues that arise as renewable-energy-generation technologies are adopted. Among the most promising flow-battery systems are those using hydrogen/halogen redox couples, which promise the possibility of meeting the cost target of the US Department of Energy (DOE), due to their fast and reversible kinetics and low materials cost. However, significant critical issues and barriers for their adoption remain. In this review of halogen/hydrogen systems, technical and performance issues, and research and development progress are reviewed. The information in this review can be used as a technical guide for research and development of related redox-flow-battery systems and other electrochemical technologies.