Metrics to describe changes in the power system need for demand response resources
Grid decarbonization efforts can benefit significantly from demand response (DR) resources. However, system-level changes that affect the net-load such as increased variable renewable energy (VRE) generation and widespread deployment of energy efficiency (EE) also affect the type, magnitude and timing of DR required to support the grid. In this study, we use publicly available system-level data to define seven metrics to assess how these changes affect system-level shed and shift DR needs. Specifically, there are four metrics for grid conditions when DR has the highest system value and three metrics for DR program design that were developed by considering the magnitude and temporal distribution of net-load. We also develop three stylized load shape profiles illustrating EE measure impacts and one high VRE generation profile to demonstrate the application of these metrics. The results confirm the robustness of the metrics to identify complex interactions between demand-side and supply-side resources that can affect the DR need. Widespread application of our metrics can help system planners and operators be cognizant of such interactions and identify the DR need for the system in a way that can be most valuable.