A Library of Building Occupant Behaviour Models Represented in a Standardised Schema

Publication Type

Journal Article




Over the past four decades, a substantial body of literature has explored the impacts of occupant behaviour (OB) on building technologies, operation, and energy consumption. A large number of data-driven behavioural models have been developed based on field data. These models lack standardisation and consistency, leading to difficulties in applications and comparison. To address this problem, an ontology was developed using the drivers-needs-actions-systems (DNAS) framework. Recent work has been carried out to implement the theoretical DNAS framework into an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema, titled ‘occupant behaviour XML’ (obXML) which is a practical implementation of OB models that can be integrated into building performance simulation (BPS) programs. This paper presents a newly developed library of OB models represented in the standardised obXML schema format. This library provides ready-to-use examples for BPS users to employ more accurate occupant representation in their energy models. The library, which contains an initial effort of 52 OB models, was made publicly available for the BPS community. As part of the library development process, limitations of the obXML schema were identified and addressed, and future improvements were proposed. Authors hope that by compiling this library building, energy modellers from all over the world can enhance their BPS models by integrating more accurate and robust OB patterns.


Energy Efficiency

Year of Publication



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