Elucidating Solvation Structures for Rational Design of Multivalent Electrolytes—A Review
Fundamental molecular-level understanding of functional properties of liquid solutions provides an important basis for designing optimized electrolytes for numerous applications. In particular, exhaustive knowledge of solvation structure, stability, and transport properties is critical for developing stable electrolytes for fast-charging and high-energy-density next-generation energy storage systems. Accordingly, there is growing interest in the rational design of electrolytes for beyond lithium-ion systems by tuning the molecular-level interactions of solvate species present in the electrolytes. Here we present a review of the solvation structure of multivalent electrolytes and its impact on the electrochemical performance of these batteries. A direct correlation between solvate species present in the solution and macroscopic properties of electrolytes is sparse for multivalent electrolytes and contradictory results have been reported in the literature. This review aims to illustrate the current understanding, compare results, and highlight future needs and directions to enable the deep understanding needed for the rational design of improved multivalent electrolytes.