Numerical and experimental validation for the thermal transmittance of windows with cellular shades
Some highly energy efficient window attachment products are available today, but more rapid market adoption would be facilitated by fair performance metrics. It is important to have validated simulation tools to provide a basis for this analysis. This paper outlines a review and validation of the ISO 15099 center-of-glass zero-solar-load heat transfer correlations for windows with cellular shades. Thermal transmittance was measured experimentally, simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and simulated utilizing correlations from ISO 15099 as implemented in Berkeley Lab WINDOW and THERM software. CFD analysis showed ISO 15099 underestimates heat flux of rectangular cavities by up to 60% when aspect ratio (AR) = 1 and overestimates heat flux up to 20% when AR = 0.5. CFD analysis also showed that wave-type surfaces of cellular shades have less than 2% impact on heat flux through the cavities and less than 5% for natural convection of room-side surface. WINDOW was shown to accurately represent heat flux of the measured configurations to a mean relative error of 0.5% and standard deviation of 3.8%. Several shade parameters showed significant influence on correlation accuracy, including distance between shade and glass, inconsistency in cell stretch, size of perimeter gaps, and the mounting hardware.