Distribution-Level Impacts of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on the Transmission System during Fault Conditions
This report investigates how the addition of a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to an existing residential distribution feeder might affect the load behavior that the feeder presents to the transmission grid. Simulations are made with a representative model of a residential distribution feeder combined with detailed modeling of existing loads (air conditioners) and modeling of charger controls based on tests with six commercially available PEVs.
The main conclusion of this investigation is that PEVs can be programmed to act during voltage dips in a way that, both, is friendly to the grid and causes no significant inconvenience to the operation of the vehicles. The report suggests voltage thresholds and timings that would be appropriate, in principle, for the programming of PEV charging systems supplied by a predominantly residential distribution feeder. Details of thresholds, timing, and logic will be determined by study of particular electric utility configurations; these studies should be undertaken with close cooperation between the electric power supply and motor vehicle industries.