List of Cited Documents

(listed in order of citation)


  1. Tucker, W.G., Chapter 31. Volatile organic compounds, in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy, Editors. 2000, McGraw Hill: New York City. p. 31.1-31.20.
  2. Wallace, L.A., Chapter 33. Assessing human exposure to volatile organic compounds, in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy, Editors. 2000, McGraw Hill: New York City. p. 33.1-33.35.
  3. Godish, T., Chapter 32. Aldehydes in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy, Editors. 2000, McGraw Hill: New York City. p. 32.1-32.22.
  4. Hodgson, A.T., D. Beal, and J.E.R. McIlvaine, Sources of formaldehyde, other aldehydes and terpenes in a new manufactured house. Indoor Air, 2002. 12(4): p. 235-242.
  5. Charles, S.M., et al., VOC and particulate emissions from commercial cigarettes: analysis of 2, 5-DMF as an ETS tracer. Environmental science & technology, 2008. 42(4): p. 1324-1331.
  6. Weschler, C.J., Chemical reactions among indoor pollutants: what we've learned in the new millennium. Indoor Air, 2004. 14(s7): p. 184-194.
  7. Logue, J.M., et al., Hazard assessment of chemical air contaminants measured in residences. Indoor Air, 2012. 21(2): p. 92-109.
  8. Jia, C., J. D'Souza, and S. Batterman, Distributions of personal VOC exposures: A population-based analysis. Environment international, 2008. 34(7): p. 922-931.
  9. Wolkoff, P. and G.D. Nielsen, Non-cancer effects of formaldehyde and relevance for setting an indoor air guideline. Environment international, 2010. 36(7): p. 788-799.
  10. Nielsen, G.D., S.T. Larsen, and P. Wolkoff, Recent trend in risk assessment of formaldehyde exposures from indoor air. Archives of toxicology, 2013. 87(1): p. 73-98.
  11. California Environmental Protection Agency. Air Toxicology and Epidemiology, All OEHHA Acute, 8-hour and Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (cRELs) as on February 2012. 2012 [cited 2013 July 28]; Available from:
  12. Health Canada. Residential indoor air quality guideline: Formaldehyde. 2006 [cited 2013 August 8]; Available from:
  13. NIOSH, NIOSH recommendations for occupational safety and health. Compendium of policy documents and statements, D. (NIOSH), Editor 1992, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  14. OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, Formaldehyde. 2012 [cited 2013 December 3]; Available from:
  15. World Health Organization, Air quality guidelines for Europe - second edition. 2000, 2000.
  16. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality 2010, Bonn, Germany.
  17. ATSDR. Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances: Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) List. 2013 [cited 2013 July 31]; Available from:
  18. ATSDR. Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) 2013 [cited 2013 July 31]; Available from:
  19. Molhave, L., Chapter 25. Sensory irritation in humans caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as indoor pollutants: a summary of 12 exposure experiments, in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy, Editors. 2000, McGraw Hill: New York City. p. 25.1-25.28.
  20. Andersson, K., et al., TVOC and Health in Non-industrial Indoor Environments: report from a Nordic scientific consensus meeting at Langholmen in Stockholm. Indoor Air, 1997. 7(2): p. 78-91.
  21. Schaper, M., Development of a database for sensory irritants and its use in establishing occupational exposure limits. The American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 1993. 54(9): p. 488-544.
  22. Wolkoff, P., et al., Formation of strong airway irritants in terpene/ozone mixtures. Indoor Air, 2000. 10: p. 82-91.
  23. Wolkoff, P., et al., Organic compounds in office environments - sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry. Indoor Air, 2006. 16(1): p. 7-19.
  24. Brasche, S., et al. Factors determining different symptom patterns of sick building syndrome syndrome-results from a multivariate analysis. in Indoor Air '99: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. 1999. Edinburgh, Scotland: Research Communications Ltd.
  25. Brasche, S., et al., Self-reported eye symptoms and related diagnostic findings—comparison of risk factor profiles. Indoor Air, 2005. 15 Suppl 10: p. 56-64.
  26. Brasche, S., et al., Comparison of risk factor profiles concerning self-reported skin complaints and objectively determined skin symptoms in German office workers. Indoor Air, 2004. 14(2): p. 137-143.
  27. Cometto-Muniz, J.E., W.S. Cain, and M.H. Abraham, Detection of single and mixed VOCs by smell and by sensory irritation. Indoor Air, 2004. 14(s8): p. 108-117.
  28. Alarie, Y., G.D. Nielsen, and M.M. Schaper, Chapter 23. Animal bioassays for evaluation of indoor air quality, in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy, Editors. 2000, McGraw Hill: New York City. p. 23.1-23.49.
  29. Ten Brinke, J., et al., Development of new volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure metrics and their relationship to "sick building syndrome" symptoms. Indoor Air, 1998. 8: p. 140-152.
  30. Apte, M.G. and J.M. Daisey. VOCs and sick building syndrome: application of a new statistical approach for SBS research to the US EPA BASE study data. in Indoor Air '99: The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. 1999. Edinburgh, Scotland: Construction Research Communications Ltd. London.
  31. Kostiainen, R., Volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of normal and sick houses. Atmospheric Environment, 1995. 29(6): p. 693-702.
  32. Saijo, Y., et al., Symptoms in relation to chemicals and dampness in newly built dwellings. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 2004. 77(7): p. 461-470.
  33. Takeda, M., et al., Relationship between sick building syndrome and indoor environmental factors in newly built Japanese dwellings. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 2009. 82(5): p. 583-593.
  34. Takigawa, T., et al., Relationship between indoor chemical concentrations and subjective symptoms associated with sick building syndrome in newly built houses in Japan. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 2010. 83(2): p. 225-235.
  35. Takigawa, T., et al., A longitudinal study of aldehydes and volatile organic compounds associated with subjective symptoms related to sick building syndrome in new dwellings in Japan. Sci Total Environ, 2012. 417-418: p. 61-7.
  36. Huang, L.-l., et al., Field survey on the relation between IAQ and occupants' health in 40 houses in southern Taiwan. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 2011. 10(1): p. 249-256.
  37. Kanazawa, A., et al., Association between indoor exposure to semi-volatile organic compounds and building-related symptoms among the occupants of residential dwellings. Indoor Air, 2010. 20(1): p. 72-84.
  38. Hodgson, A.T. and H. Levin, Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: a review of concentrations measured in North America since 1990, LBNL-51715, 2003, Berkeley National Laboratory: Berkeley, CA.
  39. Offermann, F.J., Ventilation and indoor air quality in new homes, in PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research Program Collaborative Report CEC-500-2009-0852009, California Air Resources Board and California Energy Commission: Sacramento, CA.
  40. Mendell, M.J., Indoor residential chemical emissions as risk factors for respiratory and allergic effects in children: a review. Indoor Air, 2007. 17(4): p. 259-277.
  41. California Environmental Protection Agency. Appendix D. Individual Acute, 8-hour and Chronic Reference Exposure Level Summaries, December 2008. Appendix D1, Formaldehyde Reference Exposure Levels, pp 128-169. 2008 [cited 2013 August 6]; Available from:
  42. McGwin Jr, G., J. Lienert, and J.I. Kennedy Jr, Formaldehyde exposure and asthma in children: a systematic review. Environmental health perspectives, 2010. 118(3): p. 313.
  43. Le Cann, P., et al., Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2011. 215(1): p. 1-18.
  44. Nielsen, G.D., et al., Do indoor chemicals promote development of airway allergy? Indoor Air, 2007. 17(3): p. 236-55.
  45. Hulin, M., et al., Respiratory health and indoor air pollutants based on quantitative exposure assessments. Eur Respir J, 2012. 40(4): p. 1033-45.
  46. Kangchongkittiphon, W., et al., Indoor Environmental Exposures and Asthma Exacerbation: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014 (in press).
  47. Casset, A., et al., Inhaled formaldehyde exposure: effect on bronchial response to mite allergen in sensitized asthma patients. Allergy, 2006. 61(11): p. 1344-50.
  48. Ezratty, V.r., et al., Effect of formaldehyde on asthmatic response to inhaled allergen challenge. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007. 115(2): p. 210.
  49. Annesi-Maesano, I., et al., Poor air quality in classrooms related to asthma and rhinitis in primary schoolchildren of the French 6 Cities Study. Thorax, 2012. 67(8): p. 682-688.
  50. Roda, C.l., et al., Formaldehyde exposure and lower respiratory infections in infants: findings from the PARIS cohort study. Environmental health perspectives, 2011. 119(11): p. 1653.
  51. Roda, C.l., C. Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, and I. Momas, Environmental triggers of nocturnal dry cough in infancy: New insights about chronic domestic exposure to formaldehyde in the PARIS birth cohort. Environmental research, 2013.
  52. Choi, H., et al., Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children. PLoS One, 2010. 5(10): p. e13423.
  53. Choi, H., et al., Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children. PLoS One. 5(10): p. e13423.
  54. Raaschou-Nielsen, O., et al., Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants. Indoor Air, 2010. 20(2): p. 159-167.
  55. Elliott, L., et al., Volatile organic compounds and pulmonary function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Environ Health Perspect, 2006. 114(8): p. 1210-4.
  56. World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 88 formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol. Summary of data reported and evaluation, 2006, World Health Organization.
  57. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated risk information system. 2005 [cited 2013 August 6]; Available from:
  58. Loh, M.M., et al., Ranking cancer risks of organic hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Environmental health perspectives, 2007. 115(8): p. 1160.
  59. California Environmental Protection Agency. Part II. Technical support document for describing available cancer potency factors. 2005 [cited 2013 August 6]; Available from:
  60. Sax, S.N., et al., A cancer risk assessment of inner-city teenagers living in New York City and Los Angeles. Environmental health perspectives, 2006. 114(10): p. 1558.
  61. Sarigiannis, D.A., et al., Exposure to major volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in European indoor environments and associated health risk. Environ Int, 2011. 37(4): p. 743-65.
  62. Batterman, S., et al., Sources, concentrations, and risks of naphthalene in indoor and outdoor air. Indoor Air, 2012. 22(4): p. 266-78.
  63. Chin, J.-Y., et al., Concentrations and risks of p-dichlorobenzene in indoor and outdoor air. Indoor Air, 2013. 23(1): p. 40-49.
  64. Sofuoglu, S.C., et al., An assessment of indoor air concentrations and health risks of volatile organic compounds in three primary schools. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2011. 214(1): p. 36-46.
  65. Zhou, J., et al., Health risk assessment of personal inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds in Tianjin, China. Sci Total Environ, 2011. 409(3): p. 452-9.
  66. Hun, D.E., et al., Cancer risk disparities between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations: the role of exposure to indoor air pollution. Environmental health perspectives, 2009. 117(12): p. 1925.
  67. Hauptmann, M., et al., Mortality from solid cancers among workers in formaldehyde industries. American journal of epidemiology, 2004. 159(12): p. 1117-1130.
  68. IARC. Formaldehyde. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogens 2009 [cited 2013 August 15]; Available from:,d.cGE.
  69. Zhang, L., et al., Formaldehyde and leukemia: epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and implications for risk assessment. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2010. 51(3): p. 181-191.
  70. Zhang, L., et al., Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: a new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 2009. 681(2): p. 150-168.
  71. Checkoway, H., et al., Critical review and synthesis of the epidemiologic evidence on formaldehyde exposure and risk of leukemia and other lymphohematopoietic malignancies. Cancer Causes & Control, 2012. 23(11): p. 1747-1766.
  72. Nielsen, G.D.r. and P. Wolkoff, Cancer effects of formaldehyde: a proposal for an indoor air guideline value. Archives of toxicology. 84(6): p. 423-446.
  73. Liteplo, R.G. and M.E. Meek, Inhaled formaldehyde: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 2003. 6(1): p. 85-114.
  74. Conolly, R.B., et al., Human respiratory tract cancer risks of inhaled formaldehyde: dose-response predictions derived from biologically-motivated computational modeling of a combined rodent and human dataset. Toxicological Sciences, 2004. 82(1): p. 279-296.
  75. Weschler, C.J., Ozone's impact on public health: contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry. Environmental health perspectives, 2006. 114(10): p. 1489.
  76. Singer, B.C., et al., Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone. Atmospheric Environment, 2006. 40(35): p. 6696-6710.
  77. Jia, C. and S. Batterman, A critical review of naphthalene sources and exposures relevant to indoor and outdoor air. International journal of environmental research and public health, 2010. 7(7): p. 2903-2939.
  78. Zock, J.-P., D. Vizcaya, and N. Le Moual, Update on asthma and cleaners. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology, 2011. 10(2): p. 114.
  79. Jaakkola, J.J. and M.S. Jaakkola, Professional cleaning and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 2006. 6(2): p. 85-90.
  80. Vizcaya, D., et al., A workforce-based study of occupational exposures and asthma symptoms in cleaning workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2011. 68(12): p. 914-919.
  81. Kogevinas, M., et al., Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma: an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II). The Lancet, 2007. 370(9584): p. 336-341.
  82. Arif, A.A. and G.L. Delclos, Association between cleaning-related chemicals and work-related asthma and asthma symptoms among healthcare professionals. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2012. 69(1): p. 35-40.
  83. Dumas, O., et al., Occupational exposure to cleaning products and asthma in hospital workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2012. 69(12): p. 883-889.
  84. Lillienberg, L., et al., Occupational exposure and new-onset asthma in a population-based study in Northern Europe (RHINE). Ann Occup Hyg, 2012. 57(4): p. 482-92.
  85. Zock, J.-P., et al., The use of household cleaning sprays and adult asthma: an international longitudinal study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2007. 176(8): p. 735.
  86. Le Moual, N., et al., Domestic use of cleaning sprays and asthma activity in females. European Respiratory Journal, 2012. 40(6): p. 1381-1389.
  87. Henderson, J., et al., Household chemicals, persistent wheezing and lung function: effect modification by atopy? European Respiratory Journal, 2008. 31(3): p. 547-554.
  88. Mehta, A.J., et al., Heart rate variability in association with frequent use of household sprays and scented products in SAPALDIA. Environmental health perspectives. 120(7): p. 958.
  89. Bello, A., et al., Quantitative assessment of airborne exposures generated during common cleaning tasks: a pilot study. Environmental Health. 9: p. 76-76.
  90. Zock, J.-P., et al., Domestic use of hypochlorite bleach, atopic sensitization, and respiratory symptoms in adults. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2009. 124(4): p. 731-738. e1.
  91. Nickmilder, M., S. Carbonnelle, and A. Bernard, House cleaning with chlorine bleach and the risks of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 2007. 18(1): p. 27-35.
  92. Weschler, C.J. and W.W. Nazaroff, Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments. Atmospheric Environment, 2008. 42(40): p. 9018-9040.
  93. Xu, Y. and J. Zhang, Understanding SVOCs. ASHRAE Journal, 2011. 53(12): p. 121-125.
  94. Roberts, J.W., et al., Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust, in Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Vol 2012009, Springer. p. 1-39.
  95. Weschler, C.J. and W.W. Nazaroff, SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways. Indoor Air, 2012. 22(5): p. 356-377.
  96. Hsu, N.Y., et al., Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine. Indoor Air, 2012. 22(3): p. 186-199.
  97. Schug, T.T., et al., Endocrine disrupting chemicals and disease susceptibility. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 2011. 127(3): p. 204-215.
  98. Casals-Casas, C. and B.a. Desvergne, Endocrine disruptors: from endocrine to metabolic disruption. Annual review of physiology, 2011. 73: p. 135-162.
  99. De Coster, S. and N. van Larebeke, Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action. Journal of environmental and public health, 2012. 2012.
  100. Shaw, S., Halogenated flame retardants: do the fire safety benefits justify the risks? Reviews on environmental health, 2010. 25(4): p. 261-306.
  101. Williams, A.L. and J.M. DeSesso, The potential of selected brominated flame retardants to affect neurological development. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 2010. 13(5): p. 411-448.
  102. Jaakkola, J.J.K., A. Ieromnimon, and M.S. Jaakkola, Interior Surface Materials and Asthma in Adults: A Population-based Incident Case-Control Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2006. 164(8): p. 742-9.
  103. Jaakkola, J.J., P.K. Verkasalo, and N. Jaakkola, Plastic wall materials in the home and respiratory health in young children. Am J Public Health, 2000. 90(5): p. 797-9.
  104. Jaakkola, J.J.K. and T.L. Knight, The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008. 116(7): p. 845.
  105. Wolkoff, P., et al., Acute airway effects of ozone-initiated d-limonene chemistry: Importance of gaseous products. Toxicology letters, 2008. 181(3): p. 171-176.
  106. Wolkoff, P., et al., Human reference values for acute airway effects of five common ozone-initiated terpene reaction products in indoor air. Toxicol Lett, 2013. 216(1): p. 54-64.
  107. Wolkoff, P., et al., Airway effects of repeated exposures to ozone-initiated limonene oxidation products as model of indoor air mixtures. Toxicology letters, 2012. 209(2): p. 166-172.
  108. Sunil, V.R., et al., Pulmonary effects of inhaled limonene ozone reaction products in elderly rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 2007. 222(2): p. 211-220.
  109. Klenø, J. and P. Wolkoff, Changes in eye blink frequency as a measure of trigeminal stimulation by exposure to limonene oxidation products, isoprene oxidation products and nitrate radicals. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 2004. 77(4): p. 235-243.
  110. Nøjgaard, J.K., K.B. Christensen, and P. Wolkoff, The effect on human eye blink frequency of exposure to limonene oxidation products and methacrolein. Toxicology letters, 2005. 156(2): p. 241-251.
  111. Boor, B., et al., Infant Exposure to Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Crib Mattresses. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014.
  112. D'Souza, J.C., et al., Ethnicity, housing and personal factors as determinants of VOC exposures. Atmospheric Environment, 2009. 43(18): p. 2884-2892.
  113. Madsen, T. and R. Gibson. Toxic Baby Furniture: The Latest Case for Making Products Safe from the Start. 2008 [cited 2014 April 2]; Available from:,d.aWc&cad=rjaFurthermore.
  114. California Air Resources Board, California Code of Regulations, Title 17, sections 93120-92120.12. 2007. Final Regulation Order: Airborne Toxic Control Measure to Reduce Formaldehyde Emissions from Composite Wood Products, CARB, Editor 2007.
  115. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Formaldehyde Emissions from Composite Wood Products. 2013 [cited 2013 Dec 3]; Available from:
  116. Parthasaranthy, S., et al. Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation varies. in Healthy Buildings 2012. 2012. Brisbane, Australia.
  117. Willem, H. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information. 2010. LBNL-3938E.
  118. Perkins+Will Healthy Environments: a Compilation of Substances Linked to Asthma. 2011.

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